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A desmodromic valve is a reciprocating engine poppet valve that is positively closed by a cam and leverage system, rather than by a more conventional spring.

In a conventional four-stroke engine valves are opened by a cam and closed by return spring. An engine using desmodromic valves has two cams and two actuators, each for positive opening and closing without a return spring. This denotes the major characteristic of the valves being continuously "bound" to the camshaft. The common valve spring system is satisfactory for traditional mass-produced engines that do not rev highly and are of a design that requires low maintenance. In the s new Vacuum melt processes helped to remove impurities from the metal in valve springs, increasing their life and efficiency greatly.

However, many springs would still fail at sustained operation above RPM. Furthermore, as maximum RPM increases, higher spring force is required to prevent valve floatleading to increased cam drag and higher wear on the parts at all speeds, problems addressed by the desmodromic mechanism. Fully controlled valve movement was conceived during the earliest days of engine development, but devising a system that worked reliably and was not overly complex took a long time.

Desmodromic valve systems are first mentioned in patents in by Gustav Mees. The specific purpose of the desmodromic system is to force the valves to comply with the timing diagram as consistently as possible. In this way, any lost energy is negligible, the performance curves are more uniform and dependability is better. The engineers that came after him continued that development, and Ducati held a number of patents relating to desmodromics.

Desmodromic valve actuation has been applied to top-of-the-range production Ducati motorcycles sincewith the introduction of the "widecase" Mark 3 single cylinders. Inthe Maserati brothers introduced one of their final designs: a desmodromic four-cylinder, cc engine for their last O.

In modern engines, valve spring failure at high RPM has been mostly remedied. The main benefit of the desmodromic system is the prevention of valve float at high rpm. In traditional spring-valve actuation, as engine speed increases, the inertia of the valve will eventually overcome the spring's ability to close it completely before the piston reaches TDC top dead centre.

This can lead to several problems. First, and most damaging, the piston collides with the valve and both are destroyed. Second, the valve does not completely return to its seat before combustion begins. This allows combustion gases to escape prematurely, leading to a reduction in cylinder pressure which causes a major decrease in engine performance.

This can also overheat the valve, possibly warping it and leading to catastrophic failure.

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In spring-valve engines the traditional remedy for valve float is to stiffen the springs. This increases the seat pressure of the valve the static pressure that holds the valve closed. This is beneficial at higher engine speeds because of a reduction in the aforementioned valve float.

The drawback is that the engine has to work harder to open the valve at all engine speeds. The higher spring pressure causes greater friction hence temperature and wear in the valvetrain. The desmodromic system avoids this problem, because it does not have to overcome the force of the spring. It must still overcome the inertia of the valve opening and closing, and that depends on the effective mass of the moving parts.Math Vault.

Good job! Graphing of course! When it comes to graphing, equation is one of those first words that comes to mind. For some commands e. So, what kinds of functions are supported in Desmos? Basically, all of the elementary functions you can think of! As it turns out, Desmos is remarkably receptive to calculus-based expressions as well. As with other functions, a piecewise function can also be given a name by simply replacing the leftmost variable with the name of the function.

That is:. All right. So far so good? Tired of plotting very similar graphs one by one? Hmm, what are we talking about here? Talk about laziness and efficiency!

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Oh, here comes another one! But then of course, movable points are just one of the many features animation has to offer. So why exactly do we even bother with creating a list? Actually, we are not quite done with the computational commands yet. And it gets even better: by using an undefined parameter as the upper limit and configuring the slider accordingly.

Looking to calculate the area below a strange-looking curve?Over examples of maths IA exploration topics and ideas for IB mathematics. You can download a page pdf guide to the entire IA coursework process for the new syllabus first exam to help you get excellent marks in your maths exploration. Written by an experienced IB teacher this guide talks you through:.

IB Revision with Revision Village. I would strongly recommend students use this as a resource during the course. The Questionbank takes you to a breakdown of each main subject area e.

Algebra, Calculus etc and each area then has a number of graded questions. What I like about this is that you are given a difficulty rating, as well as a mark scheme and also a worked video tutorial. Really useful! This also has some harder exams for those students aiming for 6s and 7s. I would really recommend everyone making use of this — there is a mixture of a lot of free content as well as premium content so have a look and see what you think.

For example, Mod 3 means the remainder when dividing by 3. The great Indian mathematician Ramanujan discovered some amazing examples of these.

Maths IA – Maths Exploration Topics

Why do magic squares work? Can all fractions with a numerator of 2 be written as 2 Egyptian fractions? This is a puzzle that was posed over years ago by a Chinese mathematician. It involves understanding the modulo operation.

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The twin prime conjecture states that there are infinitely many consecutive primes eg. There has been a recent breakthrough in this problem. Why does the twin paradox work?

Desmodromic valve

How all our digital communications are kept safe through the properties of primes. An interesting insight into the mathematical field of Number Theory. A post which looks at the maths behind this particularly troublesome series. How strange things happen when we start to manipulate divergent series. Investigate what makes a number happy or sad, or sociable! Can you find the loop of infinite sadness? Choose your own pattern investigation for the exploration.Scroll down this page to find over examples of maths IA exploration topics and ideas for IB mathematics students doing their internal assessment IA coursework.

IB Maths revision with Revision Village :. Revision Village is an exceptional resource for all IB maths students which I would strongly recommend all students make use of during their course. There is a mixture of a lot of free content as well as premium content so have a look and see what you think.

Algebra, Calculus etc and each area then has a number of graded questions. What I like about this is that you are given a difficulty rating, as well as a mark scheme and also a worked video tutorial. Really useful! This also has some harder exams for those students aiming for 6s and 7s. Make sure to download a copy! A list with over examples of maths IA exploration topics and ideas for IB mathematics students doing their internal assessment IA coursework. For example, Mod 3 means the remainder when dividing by 3.

The great Indian mathematician Ramanujan discovered some amazing examples of these. Why do magic squares work? Can all fractions with a numerator of 2 be written as 2 Egyptian fractions? This is a puzzle that was posed over years ago by a Chinese mathematician.

It involves understanding the modulo operation. The twin prime conjecture states that there are infinitely many consecutive primes eg. There has been a recent breakthrough in this problem. Why does the twin paradox work? How all our digital communications are kept safe through the properties of primes.The timeline below shows the date of publication of possible major scientific breakthroughs, theories and discoveries, along with the discoverer.

We begin our timeline at the Bronze Age, as it is difficult to estimate the timeline before this point, such as of the discovery of counting, natural numbers and arithmetic. To avoid overlap with Timeline of historic inventionswe do not list examples of documentation for manufactured substances and devices unless they reveal a more fundamental leap in the theoretical ideas in a field. Many early innovations of the Bronze Age were requirements resulting from the increase in tradeand this also applies to the scientific advances of this period.

For context, the major civilizations of this period are Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Indus Valley, with Greece rising in importance towards the end of the third millennium BC. It is to be noted that the Indus Valley script remains undeciphered and there are very little surviving fragments of its writing, thus any inference about scientific discoveries in the region must be made based only on archaeological digs.

The Greeks make numerous advances in mathematics and astronomy through the ArchaicClassical and Hellenistic periods. Meanwhile, Greece and its colonies have entered the Roman period in the last few decades of the preceding millennium, and Greek science is negatively impacted by the Fall of the Western Roman Empire and the economic decline that follows.

The Golden Age of Indian mathematics and astronomy continues after the end of the Gupta empire, especially in Southern India during the era of the RashtrakutaWestern Chalukya and Vijayanagara empires of Karnatakawhich variously patronised Hindu and Jain mathematicians. In addition, the Middle East enters the Islamic Golden Age through contact with other civilisations, and China enters a golden period during the Tang and Song dynasties.

The Scientific Revolution occurs in Europe around this period, greatly accelerating the progress of science and contributing to the rationalization of the natural sciences.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

See also: Timeline of historic inventions. Further information: in science and in science. Rao Archaeological Survey of India. Marine Archaeology. Notes: protractor described as "compass" in article. M Bulletin. Cuneiform Digital Library Journal.They made everything so easy, while giving us the freedom of being able to 'adventure' on our own. Our itinerary and maps were comprehensive, with many personal touches from Thordis, our travel agent.

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Timeline of scientific discoveries

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